Sunday, May 16, 2010

ADEM and atypical demyelinating disease pearls

1. Occurs more in childhood than adulthood
2.  Occurs post infection, infection may include VZV, EBV, HSV 6, measles, influenza
3.  Acutely, all lesions enhance rather than being of different ages (MAY occur)
4.  Pathologically perivenous inflammation with very little tissue or axonal destruction
5.  Hurst's hemorrhaghic leuokoencephalitis is sometimes considered as part of spectrum of ADEM, with severe course, may be fatal, hemorrhage may be petechial, with pathological and MRI diagnosis and severe demyelination
6.  Marburg's MS -- severe and unrelenting MS even within one year. Otto Marburg, 1906
7.  Tumefactive MS--may be monophasic course or develop into MS, typical or otherwise
8.  Balo's concentric sclerosis with concentric rings of demyelination alternating with remyelination, described 1927, variable course, more common in Southeast Asia, high level if inducible nitrous oxide synthase similar to hypoxia.
9.  Isolated optic neuritis without MS--half may not progress to MS without associated MS lesions
10  CRION chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuritis disease is restricted to optic nerves
11.  NMO spectrum disease with isolated and recurrent optic neuritis

For above, treatment algorithm is five days of solumedrol, then plasma exchange (at Mayo Clinic) then cytoxan.

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